Go 1.19 Release Notes

Introduction to Go 1.19

The latest Go release, version 1.19, arrives five months after Go 1.18. Most of its changes are in the implementation of the toolchain, runtime, and libraries. As always, the release maintains the Go 1 promise of compatibility. We expect almost all Go programs to continue to compile and run as before.

Changes to the language

There is only one small change to the language, a very small correction to the scope of type parameters in method declarations. Existing programs are unaffected.

Memory Model

The Go memory model has been revised to align Go with the memory model used by C, C++, Java, JavaScript, Rust, and Swift. Go only provides sequentially consistent atomics, not any of the more relaxed forms found in other languages. Along with the memory model update, Go 1.19 introduces new types in the sync/atomic package that make it easier to use atomic values, such as atomic.Int64 and atomic.Pointer[T].


LoongArch 64-bit

Go 1.19 adds support for the Loongson 64-bit architecture LoongArch on Linux (GOOS=linux, GOARCH=loong64). The implemented ABI is LP64D. Minimum kernel version supported is 5.19.

Note that most existing commercial Linux distributions for LoongArch come with older kernels, with a historical incompatible system call ABI. Compiled binaries will not work on these systems, even if statically linked. Users on such unsupported systems are limited to the distribution-provided Go package.


The riscv64 port now supports passing function arguments and result using registers. Benchmarking shows typical performance improvements of 10% or more on riscv64.


Doc Comments

Go 1.19 adds support for links, lists, and clearer headings in doc comments. As part of this change, gofmt now reformats doc comments to make their rendered meaning clearer. See “Go Doc Comments” for syntax details and descriptions of common mistakes now highlighted by gofmt. As another part of this change, the new package go/doc/comment provides parsing and reformatting of doc comments as well as support for rendering them to HTML, Markdown, and text.

New unix build constraint

The build constraint unix is now recognized in //go:build lines. The constraint is satisfied if the target operating system, also known as GOOS, is a Unix or Unix-like system. For the 1.19 release it is satisfied if GOOS is one of aix, android, darwin, dragonfly, freebsd, hurd, illumos, ios, linux, netbsd, openbsd, or solaris. In future releases the unix constraint may match additional newly supported operating systems.

Go command

The -trimpath flag, if set, is now included in the build settings stamped into Go binaries by go build, and can be examined using go version -m or debug.ReadBuildInfo.

go generate now sets the GOROOT environment variable explicitly in the generator's environment, so that generators can locate the correct GOROOT even if built with -trimpath.

go test and go generate now place GOROOT/bin at the beginning of the PATH used for the subprocess, so tests and generators that execute the go command will resolve it to same GOROOT.

go env now quotes entries that contain spaces in the CGO_CFLAGS, CGO_CPPFLAGS, CGO_CXXFLAGS, CGO_FFLAGS, CGO_LDFLAGS, and GOGCCFLAGS variables it reports.

go list -json now accepts a comma-separated list of JSON fields to populate. If a list is specified, the JSON output will include only those fields, and go list may avoid work to compute fields that are not included. In some cases, this may suppress errors that would otherwise be reported.

The go command now caches information necessary to load some modules, which should result in a speed-up of some go list invocations.


The vet checker “errorsas” now reports when errors.As is called with a second argument of type *error, a common mistake.


The runtime now includes support for a soft memory limit. This memory limit includes the Go heap and all other memory managed by the runtime, and excludes external memory sources such as mappings of the binary itself, memory managed in other languages, and memory held by the operating system on behalf of the Go program. This limit may be managed via runtime/debug.SetMemoryLimit or the equivalent GOMEMLIMIT environment variable. The limit works in conjunction with runtime/debug.SetGCPercent / GOGC, and will be respected even if GOGC=off, allowing Go programs to always make maximal use of their memory limit, improving resource efficiency in some cases. See the GC guide for a detailed guide explaining the soft memory limit in more detail, as well as a variety of common use-cases and scenarios. Please note that small memory limits, on the order of tens of megabytes or less, are less likely to be respected due to external latency factors, such as OS scheduling. See issue 52433 for more details. Larger memory limits, on the order of hundreds of megabytes or more, are stable and production-ready.

In order to limit the effects of GC thrashing when the program's live heap size approaches the soft memory limit, the Go runtime also attempts to limit total GC CPU utilization to 50%, excluding idle time, choosing to use more memory over preventing application progress. In practice, we expect this limit to only play a role in exceptional cases, and the new runtime metric /gc/limiter/last-enabled:gc-cycle reports when this last occurred.

The runtime now schedules many fewer GC worker goroutines on idle operating system threads when the application is idle enough to force a periodic GC cycle.

The runtime will now allocate initial goroutine stacks based on the historic average stack usage of goroutines. This avoids some of the early stack growth and copying needed in the average case in exchange for at most 2x wasted space on below-average goroutines.

On Unix operating systems, Go programs that import package os now automatically increase the open file limit (RLIMIT_NOFILE) to the maximum allowed value; that is, they change the soft limit to match the hard limit. This corrects artificially low limits set on some systems for compatibility with very old C programs using the select system call. Go programs are not helped by that limit, and instead even simple programs like gofmt often ran out of file descriptors on such systems when processing many files in parallel. One impact of this change is that Go programs that in turn execute very old C programs in child processes may run those programs with too high a limit. This can be corrected by setting the hard limit before invoking the Go program.

Unrecoverable fatal errors (such as concurrent map writes, or unlock of unlocked mutexes) now print a simpler traceback excluding runtime metadata (equivalent to a fatal panic) unless GOTRACEBACK=system or crash. Runtime-internal fatal error tracebacks always include full metadata regardless of the value of GOTRACEBACK

Support for debugger-injected function calls has been added on ARM64, enabling users to call functions from their binary in an interactive debugging session when using a debugger that is updated to make use of this functionality.

The address sanitizer support added in Go 1.18 now handles function arguments and global variables more precisely.


The compiler now uses a jump table to implement large integer and string switch statements. Performance improvements for the switch statement vary but can be on the order of 20% faster. (GOARCH=amd64 and GOARCH=arm64 only)

The Go compiler now requires the -p=importpath flag to build a linkable object file. This is already supplied by the go command and by Bazel. Any other build systems that invoke the Go compiler directly will need to make sure they pass this flag as well.

The Go compiler no longer accepts the -importmap flag. Build systems that invoke the Go compiler directly must use the -importcfg flag instead.


Like the compiler, the assembler now requires the -p=importpath flag to build a linkable object file. This is already supplied by the go command. Any other build systems that invoke the Go assembler directly will need to make sure they pass this flag as well.


On ELF platforms, the linker now emits compressed DWARF sections in the standard gABI format (SHF_COMPRESSED), instead of the legacy .zdebug format.

Core library

New atomic types

The sync/atomic package defines new atomic types Bool, Int32, Int64, Uint32, Uint64, Uintptr, and Pointer. These types hide the underlying values so that all accesses are forced to use the atomic APIs. Pointer also avoids the need to convert to unsafe.Pointer at call sites. Int64 and Uint64 are automatically aligned to 64-bit boundaries in structs and allocated data, even on 32-bit systems.

PATH lookups

Command and LookPath no longer allow results from a PATH search to be found relative to the current directory. This removes a common source of security problems but may also break existing programs that depend on using, say, exec.Command("prog") to run a binary named prog (or, on Windows, prog.exe) in the current directory. See the os/exec package documentation for information about how best to update such programs.

On Windows, Command and LookPath now respect the NoDefaultCurrentDirectoryInExePath environment variable, making it possible to disable the default implicit search of “.” in PATH lookups on Windows systems.

Minor changes to the library

As always, there are various minor changes and updates to the library, made with the Go 1 promise of compatibility in mind. There are also various performance improvements, not enumerated here.


Reader now ignores non-ZIP data at the start of a ZIP file, matching most other implementations. This is necessary to read some Java JAR files, among other uses.


Operating on invalid curve points (those for which the IsOnCurve method returns false, and which are never returned by Unmarshal or by a Curve method operating on a valid point) has always been undefined behavior and can lead to key recovery attacks. If an invalid point is supplied to Marshal, MarshalCompressed, Add, Double, or ScalarMult, they will now panic.

ScalarBaseMult operations on the P224, P384, and P521 curves are now up to three times faster, leading to similar speedups in some ECDSA operations. The generic (not platform optimized) P256 implementation was replaced with one derived from a formally verified model; this might lead to significant slowdowns on 32-bit platforms.


Read no longer buffers random data obtained from the operating system between calls. Applications that perform many small reads at high frequency might choose to wrap Reader in a bufio.Reader for performance reasons, taking care to use io.ReadFull to ensure no partial reads occur.

On Plan 9, Read has been reimplemented, replacing the ANSI X9.31 algorithm with a fast key erasure generator.

The Prime implementation was changed to use only rejection sampling, which removes a bias when generating small primes in non-cryptographic contexts, removes one possible minor timing leak, and better aligns the behavior with BoringSSL, all while simplifying the implementation. The change does produce different outputs for a given random source stream compared to the previous implementation, which can break tests written expecting specific results from specific deterministic random sources. To help prevent such problems in the future, the implementation is now intentionally non-deterministic with respect to the input stream.


The GODEBUG option tls10default=1 has been removed. It is still possible to enable TLS 1.0 client-side by setting Config.MinVersion.

The TLS server and client now reject duplicate extensions in TLS handshakes, as required by RFC 5246, Section and RFC 8446, Section 4.2.


CreateCertificate no longer supports creating certificates with SignatureAlgorithm set to MD5WithRSA.

CreateCertificate no longer accepts negative serial numbers.

CreateCertificate will not emit an empty SEQUENCE anymore when the produced certificate has no extensions.

Removal of the GODEBUG optionx509sha1=1, originally planned for Go 1.19, has been rescheduled to a future release. Applications using it should work on migrating. Practical attacks against SHA-1 have been demonstrated since 2017 and publicly trusted Certificate Authorities have not issued SHA-1 certificates since 2015.

ParseCertificate and ParseCertificateRequest now reject certificates and CSRs which contain duplicate extensions.

The new CertPool.Clone and CertPool.Equal methods allow cloning a CertPool and checking the equivalence of two CertPools respectively.

The new function ParseRevocationList provides a faster, safer to use CRL parser which returns a RevocationList. Parsing a CRL also populates the new RevocationList fields RawIssuer, Signature, AuthorityKeyId, and Extensions, which are ignored by CreateRevocationList.

The new method RevocationList.CheckSignatureFrom checks that the signature on a CRL is a valid signature from a Certificate.

The ParseCRL and ParseDERCRL functions are now deprecated in favor of ParseRevocationList. The Certificate.CheckCRLSignature method is deprecated in favor of RevocationList.CheckSignatureFrom.

The path builder of Certificate.Verify was overhauled and should now produce better chains and/or be more efficient in complicated scenarios. Name constraints are now also enforced on non-leaf certificates.


The types CertificateList and TBSCertificateList have been deprecated. The new crypto/x509 CRL functionality should be used instead.


The new EM_LOONGARCH and R_LARCH_* constants support the loong64 port.


The new File.COFFSymbolReadSectionDefAux method, which returns a COFFSymbolAuxFormat5, provides access to COMDAT information in PE file sections. These are supported by new IMAGE_COMDAT_* and IMAGE_SCN_* constants.


The new interface AppendByteOrder provides efficient methods for appending a uint16, uint32, or uint64 to a byte slice. BigEndian and LittleEndian now implement this interface.

Similarly, the new functions AppendUvarint and AppendVarint are efficient appending versions of PutUvarint and PutVarint.


The new method Reader.InputOffset reports the reader's current input position as a byte offset, analogous to encoding/json's Decoder.InputOffset.


The new method Decoder.InputPos reports the reader's current input position as a line and column, analogous to encoding/csv's Decoder.FieldPos.


The new function TextVar defines a flag with a value implementing encoding.TextUnmarshaler, allowing command-line flag variables to have types such as big.Int, netip.Addr, and time.Time.


The new functions Append, Appendf, and Appendln append formatted data to byte slices.


The parser now recognizes ~x as a unary expression with operator token.TILDE, allowing better error recovery when a type constraint such as ~int is used in an incorrect context.


The new methods Func.Origin and Var.Origin return the corresponding Object of the generic type for synthetic Func and Var objects created during type instantiation.

It is no longer possible to produce an infinite number of distinct-but-identical Named type instantiations via recursive calls to Named.Underlying or Named.Method.


The new functions Bytes and String provide an efficient way hash a single byte slice or string. They are equivalent to using the more general Hash with a single write, but they avoid setup overhead for small inputs.


The type FuncMap is now an alias for text/template's FuncMap instead of its own named type. This allows writing code that operates on a FuncMap from either setting.


Draw with the Src operator preserves non-premultiplied-alpha colors when destination and source images are both image.NRGBA or both image.NRGBA64. This reverts a behavior change accidentally introduced by a Go 1.18 library optimization; the code now matches the behavior in Go 1.17 and earlier.


NopCloser's result now implements WriterTo whenever its input does.

MultiReader's result now implements WriterTo unconditionally. If any underlying reader does not implement WriterTo, it is simulated appropriately.


On Windows only, the mime package now ignores a registry entry recording that the extension .js should have MIME type text/plain. This is a common unintentional misconfiguration on Windows systems. The effect is that .js will have the default MIME type text/javascript; charset=utf-8. Applications that expect text/plain on Windows must now explicitly call AddExtensionType.


The pure Go resolver will now use EDNS(0) to include a suggested maximum reply packet length, permitting reply packets to contain up to 1232 bytes (the previous maximum was 512). In the unlikely event that this causes problems with a local DNS resolver, setting the environment variable GODEBUG=netdns=cgo to use the cgo-based resolver should work. Please report any such problems on the issue tracker.

When a net package function or method returns an "I/O timeout" error, the error will now satisfy errors.Is(err, context.DeadlineExceeded). When a net package function returns an "operation was canceled" error, the error will now satisfy errors.Is(err, context.Canceled). These changes are intended to make it easier for code to test for cases in which a context cancellation or timeout causes a net package function or method to return an error, while preserving backward compatibility for error messages.

Resolver.PreferGo is now implemented on Windows and Plan 9. It previously only worked on Unix platforms. Combined with Dialer.Resolver and Resolver.Dial, it's now possible to write portable programs and be in control of all DNS name lookups when dialing.

The net package now has initial support for the netgo build tag on Windows. When used, the package uses the Go DNS client (as used by Resolver.PreferGo) instead of asking Windows for DNS results. The upstream DNS server it discovers from Windows may not yet be correct with complex system network configurations, however.


ResponseWriter.WriteHeader now supports sending user-defined 1xx informational headers.

The io.ReadCloser returned by MaxBytesReader will now return the defined error type MaxBytesError when its read limit is exceeded.

The HTTP client will handle a 3xx response without a Location header by returning it to the caller, rather than treating it as an error.


The new JoinPath function and URL.JoinPath method create a new URL by joining a list of path elements.

The URL type now distinguishes between URLs with no authority and URLs with an empty authority. For example, http:///path has an empty authority (host), while http:/path has none.

The new URL field OmitHost is set to true when a URL has an empty authority.


A Cmd with a non-empty Dir field and nil Env now implicitly sets the PWD environment variable for the subprocess to match Dir.

The new method Cmd.Environ reports the environment that would be used to run the command, including the implicitly set PWD variable.


The method Value.Bytes now accepts addressable arrays in addition to slices.

The methods Value.Len and Value.Cap now successfully operate on a pointer to an array and return the length of that array, to match what the builtin len and cap functions do.


Go 1.18 release candidate 1, Go 1.17.8, and Go 1.16.15 included a security fix to the regular expression parser, making it reject very deeply nested expressions. Because Go patch releases do not introduce new API, the parser returned syntax.ErrInternalError in this case. Go 1.19 adds a more specific error, syntax.ErrNestingDepth, which the parser now returns instead.


The GOROOT function now returns the empty string (instead of "go") when the binary was built with the -trimpath flag set and the GOROOT variable is not set in the process environment.


The new /sched/gomaxprocs:threads metric reports the current runtime.GOMAXPROCS value.

The new /cgo/go-to-c-calls:calls metric reports the total number of calls made from Go to C. This metric is identical to the runtime.NumCgoCall function.

The new /gc/limiter/last-enabled:gc-cycle metric reports the last GC cycle when the GC CPU limiter was enabled. See the runtime notes for details about the GC CPU limiter.


Stop-the-world pause times have been significantly reduced when collecting goroutine profiles, reducing the overall latency impact to the application.

MaxRSS is now reported in heap profiles for all Unix operating systems (it was previously only reported for GOOS=android, darwin, ios, and linux).


The race detector has been upgraded to use thread sanitizer version v3 on all supported platforms except windows/amd64 and openbsd/amd64, which remain on v2. Compared to v2, it is now typically 1.5x to 2x faster, uses half as much memory, and it supports an unlimited number of goroutines. On Linux, the race detector now requires at least glibc version 2.17 and GNU binutils 2.26.

The race detector is now supported on GOARCH=s390x.

Race detector support for openbsd/amd64 has been removed from thread sanitizer upstream, so it is unlikely to ever be updated from v2.


When tracing and the CPU profiler are enabled simultaneously, the execution trace includes CPU profile samples as instantaneous events.


The sorting algorithm has been rewritten to use pattern-defeating quicksort, which is faster for several common scenarios.

The new function Find is like Search but often easier to use: it returns an additional boolean reporting whether an equal value was found.


Quote and related functions now quote the rune U+007F as \x7f, not \u007f, for consistency with other ASCII values.


On PowerPC (GOARCH=ppc64, ppc64le), Syscall, Syscall6, RawSyscall, and RawSyscall6 now always return 0 for return value r2 instead of an undefined value.

On AIX and Solaris, Getrusage is now defined.


The new method Duration.Abs provides a convenient and safe way to take the absolute value of a duration, converting −2⁶³ to 2⁶³−1. (This boundary case can happen as the result of subtracting a recent time from the zero time.)

The new method Time.ZoneBounds returns the start and end times of the time zone in effect at a given time. It can be used in a loop to enumerate all the known time zone transitions at a given location.