The Go ecosystem provides a large suite of APIs and tools to diagnose logic and performance problems in Go programs. This page summarizes the available tools and helps Go users pick the right one for their specific problem.

Diagnostics solutions can be categorized into the following groups:

Note: Some diagnostics tools may interfere with each other. For example, precise memory profiling skews CPU profiles and goroutine blocking profiling affects scheduler trace. Use tools in isolation to get more precise info.


Profiling is useful for identifying expensive or frequently called sections of code. The Go runtime provides profiling data in the format expected by the pprof visualization tool. The profiling data can be collected during testing via go test or endpoints made available from the net/http/pprof package. Users need to collect the profiling data and use pprof tools to filter and visualize the top code paths.

Predefined profiles provided by the runtime/pprof package:

What other profilers can I use to profile Go programs?

On Linux, perf tools can be used for profiling Go programs. Perf can profile and unwind cgo/SWIG code and kernel, so it can be useful to get insights into native/kernel performance bottlenecks. On macOS, Instruments suite can be used profile Go programs.

Can I profile my production services?

Yes. It is safe to profile programs in production, but enabling some profiles (e.g. the CPU profile) adds cost. You should expect to see performance downgrade. The performance penalty can be estimated by measuring the overhead of the profiler before turning it on in production.

You may want to periodically profile your production services. Especially in a system with many replicas of a single process, selecting a random replica periodically is a safe option. Select a production process, profile it for X seconds for every Y seconds and save the results for visualization and analysis; then repeat periodically. Results may be manually and/or automatically reviewed to find problems. Collection of profiles can interfere with each other, so it is recommended to collect only a single profile at a time.

What are the best ways to visualize the profiling data?

The Go tools provide text, graph, and callgrind visualization of the profile data using go tool pprof. Read Profiling Go programs to see them in action.

Listing of the most expensive calls as text.

Visualization of the most expensive calls as a graph.

Weblist view displays the expensive parts of the source line by line in an HTML page. In the following example, 530ms is spent in the runtime.concatstrings and cost of each line is presented in the listing.

Visualization of the most expensive calls as weblist.

Another way to visualize profile data is a flame graph. Flame graphs allow you to move in a specific ancestry path, so you can zoom in/out of specific sections of code. The upstream pprof has support for flame graphs.

Flame graphs offers visualization to spot the most expensive code-paths.

Am I restricted to the built-in profiles?

Additionally to what is provided by the runtime, Go users can create their custom profiles via pprof.Profile and use the existing tools to examine them.

Can I serve the profiler handlers (/debug/pprof/...) on a different path and port?

Yes. The net/http/pprof package registers its handlers to the default mux by default, but you can also register them yourself by using the handlers exported from the package.

For example, the following example will serve the pprof.Profile handler on :7777 at /custom_debug_path/profile:

package main

import (

func main() {
	mux := http.NewServeMux()
	mux.HandleFunc("/custom_debug_path/profile", pprof.Profile)
	log.Fatal(http.ListenAndServe(":7777", mux))


Tracing is a way to instrument code to analyze latency throughout the lifecycle of a chain of calls. Go provides golang.org/x/net/trace package as a minimal tracing backend per Go node and provides a minimal instrumentation library with a simple dashboard. Go also provides an execution tracer to trace the runtime events within an interval.

Tracing enables us to:

In monolithic systems, it's relatively easy to collect diagnostic data from the building blocks of a program. All modules live within one process and share common resources to report logs, errors, and other diagnostic information. Once your system grows beyond a single process and starts to become distributed, it becomes harder to follow a call starting from the front-end web server to all of its back-ends until a response is returned back to the user. This is where distributed tracing plays a big role to instrument and analyze your production systems.

Distributed tracing is a way to instrument code to analyze latency throughout the lifecycle of a user request. When a system is distributed and when conventional profiling and debugging tools don’t scale, you might want to use distributed tracing tools to analyze the performance of your user requests and RPCs.

Distributed tracing enables us to:

The Go ecosystem provides various distributed tracing libraries per tracing system and backend-agnostic ones.

Is there a way to automatically intercept each function call and create traces?

Go doesn’t provide a way to automatically intercept every function call and create trace spans. You need to manually instrument your code to create, end, and annotate spans.

How should I propagate trace headers in Go libraries?

You can propagate trace identifiers and tags in the context.Context. There is no canonical trace key or common representation of trace headers in the industry yet. Each tracing provider is responsible for providing propagation utilities in their Go libraries.

What other low-level events from the standard library or runtime can be included in a trace?

The standard library and runtime are trying to expose several additional APIs to notify on low level internal events. For example, httptrace.ClientTrace provides APIs to follow low-level events in the life cycle of an outgoing request. There is an ongoing effort to retrieve low-level runtime events from the runtime execution tracer and allow users to define and record their user events.


Debugging is the process of identifying why a program misbehaves. Debuggers allow us to understand a program’s execution flow and current state. There are several styles of debugging; this section will only focus on attaching a debugger to a program and core dump debugging.

Go users mostly use the following debuggers:

How well do debuggers work with Go programs?

The gc compiler performs optimizations such as function inlining and variable registerization. These optimizations sometimes make debugging with debuggers harder. There is an ongoing effort to improve the quality of the DWARF information generated for optimized binaries. Until those improvements are available, we recommend disabling optimizations when building the code being debugged. The following command builds a package with no compiler optimizations:

$ go build -gcflags=all="-N -l"

As part of the improvement effort, Go 1.10 introduced a new compiler flag -dwarflocationlists. The flag causes the compiler to add location lists that helps debuggers work with optimized binaries. The following command builds a package with optimizations but with the DWARF location lists:

$ go build -gcflags="-dwarflocationlists=true"

What’s the recommended debugger user interface?

Even though both delve and gdb provides CLIs, most editor integrations and IDEs provides debugging-specific user interfaces.

Is it possible to do postmortem debugging with Go programs?

A core dump file is a file that contains the memory dump of a running process and its process status. It is primarily used for post-mortem debugging of a program and to understand its state while it is still running. These two cases make debugging of core dumps a good diagnostic aid to postmortem and analyze production services. It is possible to obtain core files from Go programs and use delve or gdb to debug, see the core dump debugging page for a step-by-step guide.

Runtime statistics and events

The runtime provides stats and reporting of internal events for users to diagnose performance and utilization problems at the runtime level.

Users can monitor these stats to better understand the overall health and performance of Go programs. Some frequently monitored stats and states:

Execution tracer

Go comes with a runtime execution tracer to capture a wide range of runtime events. Scheduling, syscall, garbage collections, heap size, and other events are collected by runtime and available for visualization by the go tool trace. Execution tracer is a tool to detect latency and utilization problems. You can examine how well the CPU is utilized, and when networking or syscalls are a cause of preemption for the goroutines.

Tracer is useful to:

However, it is not great for identifying hot spots such as analyzing the cause of excessive memory or CPU usage. Use profiling tools instead first to address them.

Above, the go tool trace visualization shows the execution started fine, and then it became serialized. It suggests that there might be lock contention for a shared resource that creates a bottleneck.

See go tool trace to collect and analyze runtime traces.


Runtime also emits events and information if GODEBUG environmental variable is set accordingly.

The GODEBUG environmental variable can be used to disable use of instruction set extensions in the standard library and runtime.